1 / skrAtF; skrAtF/ v
(a) I, Ipr, Tn] make marks on or in (a surface) with a sharp tool, nails, claws, etc; make a shallow wound in (the skin) in this way 刮, 划, 抓(物体表面或皮肤)(呈现伤或痕): That cat scratches. 那只猫爱用爪子乱抓. * The dog is scratching at the door. 狗正在抓门. * The knife has scratched the table. 刀子把桌子划出了道子. * She won't scratch you. 她不会把你抓伤的. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] make (sth) by scratching 抓﹑ 划或刮等而成(某状态): scratch a line on a surface 在物体表面划出一条线 * scratch (out) a hole in the soil 在土里挖(出)一个洞 * He'd scratched his name in the bark of the tree. 他把名字刻在树皮上了.
[I, Tn] scrape or rub (the skin), esp with the nails to relieve itching 挠或擦(皮肤); (尤指)搔痒: Stop scratching (yourself). 别再搔痒了. * Scratching the rash will make it worse. 丘疹越挠越坏.
[Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth (on sth) get (oneself or a part of the body) scratched by accident 使(自己或身体某部)意外划伤: She scratched herself badly while pruning the roses. 她修剪玫瑰花时把自己划伤了一大片. * He's scratched his hand on a nail. 他的手让钉子刮破了.
[I] make an unpleasant scraping sound 发出刮或擦的声音: My pen scratches. 我的钢笔在写字时发出刮纸声.
[I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (sb/sth) (from sth) withdraw (sb/sth) from competing in a race, competition, etc (使自己[某物])退出比赛: I had to scratch (from the marathon) because of a bad cold. 我患了重感冒, 只好退出马拉松比赛. * The horse had to be scratched (from its first race). 只好把那匹马撤出了(第一场比赛).
(idm 习语) scratch one's `head think hard in a puzzled way about what to do or say 挠头; 伤脑筋; 费思量: We've been scratching our heads for a solution to the problem. 我们一直苦苦思索, 想找到解决这一问题的方法. scratch the `surface (of sth) treat a subject or deal with a problem without being thorough 对待或处理一问题不深入彻底: This essay is so short that it can only scratch the surface of the topic. 这篇文章很短, 只能对这一问题作肤浅的探讨. * The famine is so bad, aid can only scratch the surface. 饥荒十分严重, 援助也只是杯水车薪. ,you scratch `my back and ,I'll scratch `yours (saying 谚) you help me and I'll help you, esp in an unfair way 你给我搔背, 我也给你搔背(你帮我, 我也帮你, 尤指不正当的事): The contract went to a friend of the chief accountant: it's (a case of) you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours. 承包合同批给了总会计师的朋友, (可谓)各有好处﹑ 串通一气.
(phr v) scratch about (for sth) search here and there using sth sharp, one's nails etc (用尖物﹑ 指甲等)各处抓挠寻找: The monkey scratched about in its mate's fur for fleas. 那只猴子在另一只猴子身上找跳蚤. scratch sth away, off, etc remove sth by scratching 刮去某物: scratch the paint away from the lock 把锁头上的油漆刮掉. * scratch the rust off the wheel 把轮子上的锈刮掉 * I'll scratch your eyes out! 我要把你的眼睛挖出来! scratch sth out (of sth) erase sth by scratching with sth sharp 用尖物划掉某物: Her name had been scratched out of the list. 她的名字已从名单上划掉了. scratch sth together/up = scrape sth together/up (scrape1). scratch sth up get sth out of the ground by scratching 从地上刮出某物: The dog scratched up a bone in the garden. 那条狗在花园里刨出一根骨头.
# `scratch pad (esp US) pad of scrap paper 便条纸簿.
`scratch paper (US) = scrap paper (scrap1).