/ E5fend; E`fZnd/ v
(a) [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] cause (sb) to feel upset or angry; hurt the feelings of 触怒, 冒犯（某人）; 伤（某人）的感情: She was offended at/by his sexist remarks. 他那些性别歧视的话把她惹恼了. * She may be offended if you don't reply to her invitation. 她请你, 你要是不回个信儿就可能把她得罪了. (b) [Tn] cause displeasure or annoyance to (sb/sth) 使（某人）不快, 恼怒; 使（某物）不适: sounds that offend the ear 刺耳的声音 * an ugly building that offends the eye 一座难看的建筑物.
[Ipr] ~ against sb/sth (fml 文) do wrong to sb/sth; commit an offence against sb/sth 触犯﹑ 冒犯或得罪某人; 触犯﹑ 侵犯或违犯某事物:offend against humanity 违反人性 * His conduct offended against the rules of decent behaviour. 他的行为已经离格儿了.
> offender n (a) person who offends, esp by breaking a law 冒犯者; 犯规者; （尤指）犯法者, 犯罪者, 犯人: an offender against society 为害社会的人. (b) person found guilty of a crime 罪犯; 有罪者: a persistent offender 惯犯. Cf 参看 first offender (first1).