1 / hEUld; hold/ v (pt, pp held / held; hZld/)
[Tn, Tn.pr] take and keep or support (sb/sth) in one's arms, hands, teeth, etc 拿住, 抓住, 抱住, 咬住, 托住, 支撑住（某人[某物]）: The girl was holding her father's hand. 那女孩抓住她父亲的手. * The lovers held each other tight. 这一对情侣紧紧地搂抱着. * They were holding hands, ie holding each other's hands. 他们手握着手. * She was holding an umbrella. 她拿着一把伞. * She held me by the sleeve. 她抓住我的袖子. * She was holding the baby in her arms. 她抱着婴儿. * He held the rope in his teeth as he climbed the tree. 他爬树时用牙齿咬着绳子.
[Tn] (a) bear the weight of (sb/sth); support 承受（某人[某物]）的重量; 支承: Is that branch strong enough to hold you/your weight? 那树枝经得住你[你的重量]吗? (b) restrain or control (sb/sth) 约束或控制（某人[某事物]）: Try to hold the thief until the police arrive. 设法看管好这个小偷, 等警察到来. * The dam gave way; it was not strong enough to hold the flood waters. 水坝坍塌了; 它不够坚固, 挡不住洪水.
[Tn.pr, Tn.p, Cn.a] keep (oneself/sb/sth) in the specified position or condition 使（自己[某人/某物]）保持在某一位置或某种状况: The wood is held in position by a clamp. 木头用钳夹固定住了. * Hold your head up. 把头抬起来. * Hold your arms out. 把手臂伸出来. * It took three nurses to hold him down while they gave him the injection. 给他打针时, 用了三个护士才把他按住. * She held out her hand to take the rope. 她伸手去抓那根绳子. * Hold yourself still for a moment while I take your photograph. 你不要动, 我给你拍照.
(a) [I] remain secure or in position 保持稳定或固定: How long will the anchor hold? 这锚能稳住多久? * I don't think the shelf will hold if we put anything else on it. 我看再放上其他东西那架子就不稳了. (b) remain unchanged; last 持续; 维持: How long will this fine weather hold? 这样的好天气能维持多久? * If their luck holds, they could still win the championship. 他们假若能继续交好运, 还能获得冠军. (c) continue to be true or valid 继续适用; 继续有效: The offer I made to you last week still holds. 上星期我向你提供的建议仍然有效. * The argument still holds. 该论据仍然站得住脚.
[Tn] (of the wheels of a car, etc) maintain a grip of (a corner, road, etc) （指汽车等的轮子）贴紧, 咬住（拐角﹑ 道路等）: My new car holds the road well. 我的新汽车贴路性能很好.
[Tn] have enough space for (sth/sb); contain 可容纳（某物[某人]）; 包含: This barrel holds 25 litres. 这个桶能装25升. * Will this suitcase hold all my clothes? 这只衣箱装得下我所有的衣物吗? * I don't think the car will hold you all. 我看这辆汽车坐不下你们这些人. * My brain can't hold so much information at one time. 我脑子一下子记不住这麽多信息. * (fig 比喻) Who knows what the future holds for us? 谁能知道我们未来会如何?
[Tn] defend (sth) against military attack; keep possession of 守卫（某物）; 据守: hold a fort, garrison, etc 据守堡垒﹑ 要塞等 * The town was held against frequent enemy attacks. 该城抵御了敌人一次又一次的进攻. * The Tory candidate held the seat, but with a greatly reduced majority. 保守党的候选人保住了席位, 然而在得票上所占的优势却大为减少.
[Tn, Cn.n] keep (sb) and not allow him to leave 拘留（某人）: Police are holding two men in connection with last Thursday's bank robbery. 警方拘留了两名与上星期四的银行劫案有关的人. * The terrorists are holding three men hostage. 恐怖分子把三个人扣为人质. * He was held prisoner throughout the war. 他在战争期间一直被囚禁着.
[Tn] have ownership of (sth); possess 握有（某事物）; 占有: An American conglomerate holds a major share in the company. 一家美国的大联合企业持有该公司的大部分股份.
[Tn] have the position of (sth); occupy 担任（某职位）; 占据: She has now held the post of Prime Minister longer than anyone else this century. 她现在当首相任期之长在本世纪是前所未有的. * How long has he held office? 他已任职多长时间了?
[Tn] have (sth) as sth one has gained 获得, 博得, 赢得, 持有（某事物）: She holds the world record for the long jump. 她保持着跳远世界纪录.
[Tn] keep (sb's attention or interest) by being interesting 使（某人的注意力或兴趣）不减: A good teacher must be able to hold her pupils' attention. 优秀的教师一定能吸引住学生.
[Tn] have (a belief, an opinion, a view, etc) 怀有, 持有（某种信念﹑ 见解﹑ 观点 等）: He holds strange views on religion. 他对宗教问题持有奇怪的看法. * I hold the view that the plan cannot work. 我认为那个计画不可行.
[Tf, Cn.a, Cn.t] (fml 文) believe, consider or regard 相信; 认为; 视作: I hold that the government's economic policies are mistaken. 我认为政府的经济政策是错误的. * I hold the parents responsible for their child's behaviour. 我认为父母应对子女的行为负责. * I hold him to be a fool. 我认为他是个傻瓜.
[Tn] cause (a meeting, conference, etc) to take place 召开, 举行（会议﹑ 大会等）: The meeting will be held in the community centre. 会议将在社区活动中心举行. * We hold a general election every four or five years. 我们每四五年举行一次大选. * The Motor Show is usually held in October. 汽车展览会通常在十月份举行.
[Tn] (a) (of a ship or an aircraft) continue to move in (a particular direction) （指船只或飞行器）继续朝（某一方向）航行: The ship is holding a south-easterly course. 船只继续朝东南方向航行. (b) (of a singer) continue to sing (a note) （指歌唱者）继续唱（某音符）: hold a high note 持续唱着高音.
[I, Tn] wait until the person one has telephoned is ready to speak 等对方接电话: Mr Crowther's extension is engaged at the moment; will you hold (the line)? 克劳瑟先生的电话分机正占着线呢, 您稍等一下好吗?
(idm 习语) hold `good remain true or valid 仍然适用; 仍然有效: The same argument doesn't hold good in all cases. 同一论点并非对所有情况都适用. `hold it (infml 口) (used to ask sb to wait, or not to move 用以请求某人等候或不要活动): Hold it a second I don't think everyone's arrived yet. 稍等片刻吧--我看人还没有到齐呢. there is no holding sb sb cannot be prevented from doing sth 什麽也拦不住某人做某事: Once she gets onto the subject of politics there's no holding her. 她一谈起政治, 就没完没了. (For other idioms containing hold, see entries for ns, adjs, etc 与hold搭配的其他习语见有关名词﹑ 形容词等的词条, 如 hold the fort => fort; hold sb/sth dear => dear. )
(phr v) hold sth against sb (infml 口) allow sth to influence one's judgement or opinion of sb 让某事物影响自己对某人的评价或看法: He's afraid that his criminal record will be held against him when he applies for jobs. 他担心自己有前科不好找工作. * I don't hold it against him that he votes Conservative. 我并不因为他投了保守党的票而对他有看法.
hold `back (from sth) hesitate to act or speak because of fear or reluctance （因恐惧或不情愿而在言行上）退缩, 踌躇: She held back, not knowing how to break the terrible news. 她踌躇着, 不知该怎样宣布这一坏消息. * She held back from telling him what she thought of him. 她要把自己对他的看法告诉他, 但又觉得难以启齿. hold sb `back prevent the progress or development of sb 阻止或妨碍某人的进步或发展: Do you think that mixed-ability teaching holds the brighter children back? 你认为混合能力组教学会阻碍聪明儿童的进步吗? hold sb/sth back prevent sb/sth from advancing; control or restrain sb/sth 阻止﹑ 阻挡﹑ 控制或限制某人[某事物]: The police cordon was unable to hold back the crowd. 警方的警戒线阻挡不住人群. * The dam was not strong enough to hold back the flood waters. 水坝不太坚固, 挡不住洪水. hold sth back (a) not release or grant sth; withhold sth 扣住﹑ 保留或抑制某事物: hold back information 不走漏消息 * I think he's holding sth back; he knows more than he admits. 我认为他有所隐瞒, 他知道的比他承认的要多. (b) not express or reveal (an emotion); control sth 不表现或不流露（感情）; 抑制某事物: She just managed to hold back her anger. 她总算抑制住了自己的愤怒情绪. * He bravely held back his tears. 他强忍着不让眼泪流出来.
hold sb `down control the freedom of sb; oppress sb 限制某人的自由; 压制某人: The people are held down by a vicious and repressive military regime. 人民受着凶恶而专制的军政权的压迫. hold sth `down (a) keep sth at a low level; keep sth down 使某事物保持低水平; 压住某事物: The rate of inflation must be held down. 通货膨胀率必须控制在低水平上. (b) (be competent enough to) remain in (a job) for some time （有足够的能力）保持（职位）到一定时候: He couldn't hold down a job after his breakdown. 他病倒以後, 工作也就保不住了. * What's the longest she's held down a job? 她任职时间最长的是什麽工作?
hold `forth speak pompously and lengthily about sth 夸夸其谈地﹑ 滔滔不绝地讲述某事: He loves holding forth on any subject once he has an audience. 不管是什麽问题, 只要有人听, 他就爱大发议论.
hold sth/oneself in restrain, control or check sth/oneself 限制﹑ 控制或抑制某事物[自己]: hold in one's feelings, temper, anger, etc 克制感情﹑ 忍住脾气﹑ 压住怒火 * He's incapable of holding himself in. 他克制不住自己的感情.
hold `off (a) (of rain, a storm, etc) not occur; be delayed （指雨﹑ 风暴等）未发生, 延迟: The rain held off just long enough for us to have our picnic. 雨一时下不起来, 我们有足够的时间吃完野餐. (b) restrain oneself from doing sth, esp attacking sb 约束自己而不做某事（尤指不攻击他人）: Let's hope the gunmen will hold off for the duration of the cease-fire. 但愿持枪歹徒在停火期间能约束自己的行动. hold sb/sth off resist (an attack or advance by sb) 阻止或挡住（某人的进攻或前进）: Though outnumbered, they held off (repeated attacks by) the enemy. 尽管寡不敌众, 他们还是抵挡住了敌人（一次又一次的进攻）. hold off sth/doing sth delay sth 推迟某事物: Could you hold off (making) your decision until next week? 你可以推迟到下星期再做决定吗?
hold `on (a) (infml 口) (usu in the imperative 通常用於祈使语气) wait or stop 等一下; 停住: Hold on a minute while I get my breath back. 停一停, 让我喘口气. (b) survive in a difficult or dangerous situation; hang on 历经危难而不死; 坚持住: They managed to hold on until help arrived. 他们设法坚持住直到有救援到来. * I don't think I can hold on much longer. 我觉得自己坚持不了多长时间了. hold sth on keep sth in position 将某物固定住: These nuts and bolts hold the wheels on. 这些螺帽和螺栓把轮子固定住了. * This knob is only held on by sellotape. 这个旋钮只是用透明胶带固定住的. hold on (to sb/sth) keep grasping or gripping sb/sth; not let go of sb/sth 抓住或握住某人[某物]: He held on (to the rock) to stop himself slipping. 他紧紧抓住（岩石）以免自己往下滑. * hold on to one's hat on a windy day 在大风天按住自己的帽子. hold on to sth (infml 口) not give or sell sth to sb else; keep or retain sth 不把某物给予或售予他人; 保留或保有某物: You should hold on to your oil shares. 你应该继续保留着石油股份. * I'd hold on to that house for the time being; house prices are rising sharply at the moment. 目前我不能出让那所房子, 此刻房价正在急剧上涨.
hold `out (a) last; remain 维持; 保持: We can stay here for as long as our supplies hold out. 我们的供应品能维持多久, 我们就能在这里呆多久. * I can't hold out (ie retain my urine) much longer; I must find a toilet. 我憋不住了（要小便）, 得找个厕所. (b) resist an attack 抵抗; 抵御: They held out bravely against repeated enemy bombing. 敌人轮番轰炸, 他们仍英勇地抵抗. hold sth out offer (a chance, hope, possibility, etc) 提供（机会）; 带来（希望）; 使有（可能）: The forthcoming talks hold out the hope of real arms reductions. 即将举行的会谈给实现真正的裁军带来了希望. * Doctors hold out little hope of her recovering. 医生帮助她康复的希望甚微. hold out for sth (infml 口) deliberately delay reaching an agreement in the hope of gaining sth 故意拖延达成协议以谋求某事物: Union negotiators are holding out for a more generous pay settlement. 工会代表故意拖延谈判以争取达成大幅度增加工资的解决方案. hold out on sb (infml 口) refuse to give information, etc to sb 拒绝给予某人信息等; 瞒?: I'm not holding out on you. I honestly don't know where he is. 我不是故意瞒?你.我的确不知道他在哪里.
hold sth `over (often passive 常用於被动语态) postpone or defer sth 延缓或推迟某事物: The matter was held over until the next meeting. 此事推迟到下次会议解决.
`hold to sth not abandon or change (a principle, an opinion, etc); remain loyal to sth 不放弃或不改变（原则﹑ 观点等）; 忠於某事物: She always holds to her convictions. 她始终坚持自己的信念. * beliefs that were firmly held to 严格遵守的信条. hold sb to sth make sb keep (a promise) 使某人遵守（诺言）: He promised her a honeymoon in Paris when they got married, and she held him to it. 他们结婚时, 他答应她到巴黎度蜜月, 她要求他遵守诺言. * We must hold the contractors to (ie not allow them to exceed) their estimates. 我们必须使承包
hold to`gether (a) remain whole 保持完整: The car's bodywork scarcely holds together. 这汽车的车身简直都要散架了. (b) remain united 保持团结: The Tory party always holds together in times of crisis. 保守党在紧要关头总是能团结一致. hold sth together cause sth to remain together; unite sth 使某事物不散开或团结一致: The country needs a leader who will hold the nation together. 该国需要一个能使全国团结的领袖.
hold sb/sth up (a) put sb/sth forward as an example 举某人[某事物]作为范例: She's always holding up her children as models of behaviour. 她总标榜自己的子女是良好品行的榜样. (b) obstruct or delay the progress of sb/sth 阻碍或延误某人[某事物]: Road-works on the motorway are holding up traffic. 高速公路上的道路施工影响了交通. * My application was held up by the postal strike. 我的申请书由於邮政部门罢工而延误了. * Our flight was held up by fog. 我们的班机因有雾而停航. hold up sth rob sth using the threat of force or violence 以武力或暴力威胁抢劫: hold up a bank, post office, etc 抢劫银行﹑ 邮局等 * Masked men held up a security van in South London yesterday. 蒙面歹徒昨天在伦敦南部抢劫了一辆护卫车.
hold with sth (used in negative sentences or in questions 用於否定句或疑问句中) agree with or approve of sth 同意或赞成某事物: I don't hold with his views on education. 我不同意他在教育问题上的观点. * Do you hold with nudity on the stage? 你赞成在舞台上作裸体表演吗?
# `hold-up n (a) stoppage or delay 停顿或延搁: a hold-up on the motorway 高速公路上的交通阻塞 * We should arrive in half an hour, barring hold-ups. 若无交通阻塞, 我们半小时後可到达. (b) robbery by armed robbers 持械抢劫: After the hold-up, the gang made their getaway in a stolen car. 匪徒们打劫後, 乘一辆盗来的汽车逃走了.